ZAFT (Zodiac Alliance of Freedom Treaty):
ZAFT (Zodiac Alliance of Freedom Treaty) is a political, economic, and military alliance of PLANT colonies. Specifically, ZAFT usually refers to the military side of organization. It was originally formed as a political organisation known as the Zodiac Alliance by Siegel Clyne and Patrick Zala in C.E. 50, to peacefully fight for the rights and independence of Coordinators. The Zodiac Alliance was renamed "ZAFT" in C.E. 65, but became a military organisation only three years later.
ZAFT is well-equipped with Nazca-class and Laurasia-class warships in space, Lesseps-class and Petrie-class vessels on land, and Vosgulov-class submarines at sea.
ZAFT fights the Earth Alliance to a standstill in the Bloody Valentine War of Cosmic Era 70-71. During mid CE 71 Patrick Zala, who blames all Naturals for the death of his wife in the Bloody Valentine incident, becomes leader of not only ZAFT but also of PLANT and effectively removes the moderate faction of the PLANT Supreme Council. Zala plans to wipe out all human life on Earth, eliminating, he believes, Naturals who are the cause of all warfare and establish Coordinators as the master race, a "new humanity".
Earth Alliance (OMNI):
OMNI Enforcer (Oppose Militancy and Neutralize Invasion) is the military force of the Earth Alliance, and is also more commonly known as the Earth Forces. Unlike ZAFT, the military of OMNI Enforcer is tightly organized on a traditional model. Many top officers of OMNI Enforcer, mostly those from the Atlantic Federation (which dominates the Alliance after the disastrous Battle of JOSH-A) are also members of the Blue Cosmos anti-Coordinator group.
OMNI Enforcer's space fleet is large and well-equipped, though their warships are slightly outdated compared to ZAFT's powerful fleet. Their mobile weapons until the Battle of Porta Panama are primarily limited to the Moebius mobile armor, a distinctly outdated design. Five Moebius MAs are required, on average, to engage a single ZGMF-1017 GINN with any significant chance of victory. At and after Porta Panama, the Alliance quickly replaces the Moebius with the GAT-01 Strike Dagger and related mobile suit models, redressing the balance and turning the tide against ZAFT.
The Orb Union:
The Orb Union (also known as the United Emirates of Orb or Aube In the Del Rey manga) is a small Pacific island nation, located to the east of New Guinea which has a tradition of neutrality and thus is neutral in the war between the Earth Alliance and ZAFT. Orb's government consists of both an elected legislature and an aristocracy of five noble families (most notably the Athha, Sahaku, and Seiran families), and has a mixed population of both Naturals and Coordinators. Though small, Orb is both wealthy and militarily powerful, and the local arms maker Morgenroete, Inc. is one of the world's top producers of advanced weaponry. Orb also has, unusual for its small size, a considerable presence in space, including the space colony Heliopolis, the space fortress Ame-no-Mihashira ("Pillar of Heaven"), at least four powerful Izumo-class battleships, and the Kaguya mass driver located on Onogoro Island.
At the start of the Bloody Valentine War, the chief representative of Orb's government is Uzumi Nara Athha, who declares the nation's neutrality in the conflict. Despite this, the Sahaku family sponsors Morgenroete's efforts to assist the Atlantic Federation in the development of their mobile suit prototypes behind the backs of Representative Athha and the other representatives of Orb.
Unfortunately, the Earth Alliance does not respect that neutrality as the war progressed, and conquers Orb in CE 71, resulting in the death of Representative Athha and many high ranked politicians. Orb's remaining forces, including the Izumo-class battleship Kusanagi and the defecting Earth Alliance assault ship Archangel, escape to space under the command of his daughter Cagalli Yula Athha, and join forces with the stolen ZAFT warship Eternal to form the Three Ships Alliance, which would play a critical role during the end of the war.